Fortran

Fortran (atau FORTRAN) adalah sebuah bahasa pemrograman. Pertama kali dikembangkan pada tahun 1950 dan digunakan dalam bidang sains selama 50 tahun kemudian. Pertama kali bernama FORTRAN yang merupakan singkatan dari Formula Translator/Translation, tetapi penggunaan huruf besar kemudian ditiadakan sejak versi Fortran 90. Pertama kali dikembangkan merupakan bahasa pemrograman prosedural, akan tetapi versi-versi terbaru dari Fortran kemudian dikembangkan dengan memasukkan kemampuan object-oriented programming.

FORTRAN merupakan salah satu bahasa pemrograman yang cukup tua, lahir pada tahun 1957 dari sebuah tim yang dipimpin oleh John W. Backus. FORTRAN yang merupakan singkatan dari Formula Translation dibuat untuk memenuhi kebutuhan dalam hal numerik. Banyak fungsi matematika yang telah didefinisikan sehingga tidak perlu lagi dilakukan pendefinisian secara manual di program.

          Dikembangkan pada 1954 hingga 1956 oleh John Backus dan staff IBM yang lain. FORTRAN (FORmula TRANslator) merupakan bahasa level tinggi yang pertama. FORTRAN pada mulanya didesain untuk mengekspresikan humus matemática dan maíz merupakan bahasa matemática yang paling banyak digunakan. Bahasa ini juga berguna untuk aplikasi bisnis yang kompleks, seperti perkiraan (forecasting) dan pemodelan. Namur karena tidak mampu manangani operasi input/output atau pemrosesan file dalam volume besar, maka bahasa FORTRAN tidak digunakan untuk masalah bisnis yang biasa.
          Saat ini perkembangan bahasa pemrograman FORTRAN cukup pesat, dengan lahirnya Fortran 77 dan Fortran 90 telah membuat bahasa ini menjadi leader dalam hal pemrograman numerik. Tidak heran banyak programmer dalam bidang komputasi masih tetap menggunakan bahasa pemrograman Fortran untuk menyelesaikan masalah numerik.
Bahasa Pemrograman FORTRAN memiliki kelebihan dan kekekurangan  :
Kelebijan Bahasa Pemrograman FORTRAN
  • FORTRAN bisa menangani ekspresi matemática dan logika yang kompleks. Pernyataanya cukup pendek dan sederhana.
  • Program FORTRAN yang dikembangkan pada satu tipe komputer bisa dengan mudah dimodifikasi agar bisa bekerja pada tipe yang lain.
 Kekurangan Bahasa Pemrograman FORTRAN
  • FORTRAN tidak menangani operasi input dan output pada peralatan penyimpanan seefisien bahasa lain yang levelnya lebih tinggi
  • Memiliki keterbatasan untuk mengekspresikan dan memproses data nonnumerik
  • Tidak bisa dibaca atau dipahami semudah bahasa level tinggi yang
           Terdapat beberapa hal yang menjadikan bahasa pemrograman Fortran lebih unggul dibandingkan dengan bahasa pemrograman lain yaitu,
  1. proses eksekusi / kompilasi program yang cukup cepat.
  2. metode penulisan program sangat fleksibel, setiap bagian blok program dapat ditulis secara tidak berurutan.
  3. mendukung teknik kompilasi secara menyeluruh (all compilation), maksudnya misalkan kita memiliki 5 buah file Fortran yang saling berhubungan maka semua file tersebut dapat langsung dikompilasi semua dalam satu perintah dengan bantuan makefile yang kita buat, bagian ini akan dijelaskan pada bab yang akan datang.
  4. memilki kompilator (compiler) yang cukup banyak berkembang.
         Masih banyak keunggulan yang dimiliki oleh bahasa pemrograman ini yang mungkin dapat dirasakan ketika kita membuat program. Pada bab selanjutnya akan dibahas mengenai cara kompilasi dan beberapa contoh program dalam bahasa Fortran dan juga bahasa C.
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